Urolithiasis is a term used when a solid piece of material known as kidney stone occurs in urinary tract consisting of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Generally, if the kidney stone in your urinary tract is small, it is likely to pass on its own without causing any problem. If a stone in urinary tract grows more than 5 millimetres, it can cause blockage of one of the ureters or the tubes which connect kidneys to urinary bladder.
Kidney stones are no recent day problems since descriptions of surgery to remove kidney stones from humans date back to as early as 600 BC. In recent times, nearly 12% of world population is affected by kidney stone disease. In India, especially in northern India, high burden of urinary stones is indicated in the working- age population.
Let us first take a look at probable risk factors for kidney stones:
Low Fluid Intake:
It leads to dehydration which is a major risk factor for stone formation.
Increased Weight is another Leading Factor For Kidney Stones.
High consumption of animal protein, sodium, sugars including honey and refined sugars, grapefruit juice, apple juice, oxalates as in star fruit and spinach may increase the risk of formation of kidney stone. Drinking fluorinated tap water also increases the risk of kidney stone formation. Proper dietary intake of potassium can possibly reduce the risk of stone formation because potassium promotes urinary excretion of citrate thereby inhibiting calcium crystal formation. Animal protein in diet increases an acid load which in turn increases excretion of calcium and uric acid in urine and reduces citrate excretion giving way to formation of renal stones.Artificial supplements of vitamin C and D have also been linked to formation of kidney stones.